Literary Criticism

Excellence in Scholarship and Learning


Joy and Sorrow – Songs of Ancient China


Ha Poong Kim a native of Korea, taught philosophy, both Western and Eastern, at Eastern Illinois University for over twenty years. His most recent works (after retirement) include Reading Lao Tzu: A Companion to the Tao Te Ching, with a New Translation, and “Oh, Let Me Return”: Nature Poems of China (in Korean).

The Shi Jing is the oldest anthology of Chinese songs. It contains 305 songs of ancient China, composed in the 12th to 7th century BCE. The collection is divided into four parts. The present work is a translation of its first part, namely Guo Feng, which translates as “songs of states” within the Zhou kingdom (1122–255 BCE). The Guo Feng songs were mostly sung by the common people of the kingdom. In this respect, they are unlike the songs in the other three parts, which are generally dynastic songs of the Zhou court. The songs included in this translation predate Confucius, many by several centuries. Accordingly, through them one may hear the spontaneous voices of pre-Confucian China.

The text of the Shi Jing has come down to us at the present time in familiar Chinese characters. But their usage is so ancient that for centuries even Chinese readers have had to rely on a few standard commentaries, which all gave Confucian, moralistic readings of the songs, even of those that are unmistakably simple love songs. Ha Poong Kim’s translation has incorporated the results of some recent Japanese studies which question the traditional, Confucian approach to the text, thereby recovering the original meaning of many songs in the Guo Feng. It is hoped that this Chinese–English Bilingual Edition makes the voices of joys and sorrows of this ancient land audible to a modern readership, not only in the West but also in China as well.

Paperback ISBN: 978-1-84519-792-6
Paperback Price: £19.95 / $24.95
Release Date: March/April 2016
Page Extent / Format: 224 pp. / 216 x 138 mm
Illustrated: No



Part One: The Tradition
1. Songs from the Shi Jing                                       
2. Songsfrom the Chu Ci: Qu Yuan                                        
3. Songs from "Nineteen Old Poems"
Part Two: "Oh, Let Me Return!"
1. Tao Yuanming                                            
2. Xie Lingyun                                     
3. Bao Zhao                                                    
4. Wang Ji                                                      
5. Tao Hongjing
6. Wang Ji
7. Du Shenyan
8. Chen Ziang
9. Meng Haoran
10. Qi Wuqian
11. Zu Yong
12. Sun Di                                                       
13. Wang Wei                                                
14. Li Bai        
15. Cui Hao                                        
16. Chang Jian                                                
17. Chu Guangxi
18. Qian Qi
19. Du Fu        
20. Wei Yingwu
21. Si Kongshu                                    
22. Wang Lie
23. Han Yu                                                      
24. Liu Zongyuan                                            
25. Bai Juyi                                                     
26. Du Mu                                                      
27. Wen Tingyun                                            
28. Mei Yaochen                                            
29. Ouyang Xiu                                               
30. Wang Anshi                                              
31. Su Shi                                                        
32. Lu You                                                      
33. Gao Qi                                                      

Appendix 1: "Oh, Let Me Return!"                 
Appendix 2: Images beyond Syntax   
Appendix 3: Thoreau's "Mythology of the Wild"


This volume provides an English translation of the first part (Guo Feng) of Shi Jing, an anthology of ancient Chinese songs composed in the 12th to 17th century BCE. The 160 Guo Feng songs were mainly sung by the common people of the Zhou kingdom. The translation includes the original Chinese and incorporates results of recent Japanese studies that challenged the traditional, Confucian approach to the text, emphasizing the original meanings of the songs, rather than allegorical or moralistic readings.

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