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The Last Survivor

Cultural and Social Projects Underlying Spanish Fascism, 1931–1975

In the Series

Studies in Spanish History 

Ferran Gallego is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Early Modern and Modern History at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Francisco Morente is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Early Modern and Modern History at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

This book proposes an interpretation of Francoism as the Spanish variant of fascism. Unlike Italian fascism and Nazism, the Franco regime survived the Second World War and continued its existence until the death of dictator Francisco Franco. Francoism was, therefore, the Last Survivor of the fascisms of the interwar period. And indeed this designation applies equally to Franco.
The work begins with an analysis of the historical identity of Spanish fascism, constituted in the process of fascistization of the Spanish right during the crisis of the Second Republic, and consolidated in the formation of the fascist single-party and the New State during the civil war. Subsequent chapter contributions focus on various cultural and social projects (the university, political-cultural journals, the Labor University Service, local policies and social insurance) that sought to socialize Spaniards in the political principles of the Franco regime and thereby to strengthen social cohesion around it. Francoism faced varying degrees of non-compliance and outright hostility, expressed as different forms of cultural opposition to the Franco regime, especially in the years of its maturity (decades of the fifties and sixties), from Spaniards both inside Spain and in exile. Such opposition is explored in the context of how the regime reacted via the social, cultural and economic inducements at its disposal.

The editors and contributors are widely published in the field of Spain of the Second Republic, the civil war and the Franco dictatorship. Research material is drawn from primary archival sources, and provides new information and new interpretations on Spanish politics, culture and society during the dictatorship.

Hardback ISBN: 978-1-84519-876-3
Hardback Price: £65.00 / $74.95
Release Date: October 2017
Paperback ISBN: 978-1-84519-946-3
Paperback Price: £25.00 / $34.95
Release Date: September 2018
Page Extent / Format: 256 pp. / 229 x 152 mm
Illustrated: No



Preface by Series Editor Nigel Townson

The Peculiarities of Spanish Fascism
Ferran Gallego and Francisco Morente

  1.  The Importance of Being Fascist: The Falange and the Spanish Counter-Revolution (1931–1936)
     Ferran Gallego
  2. The Falange and Academia: Falangist Intellectuals and the Idea of a National-Syndicalist University (1933–1943)
    Francisco Morente
  3. Modernism and Falangism: The Journal Escorial and its Authoritarian Modernizing Project
     Nicolás Sesma Landrin
  4. ‘More of the Same’ in Franco’s New State
     Julio Ponce Alberca
  5.  Welfare as a Totalitarian Tool: Fascist Italy and Francoist
    Spain in the European Context
    Guillermo Marín Casado and Iñaki Fernández Redondo
  6. The University Work Service (SUT): Falangism and
    Catholicism in a Post-Fascist Dictatorship
     Javier Muñoz Soro
  7. Francoism and Opposition in the 1950s: Narratives of
    National Reconciliation
     Emilio Grandío
  8. The Idea of Europe, Transnational Networks and
    Spanish Anti-Totalitarian Mobilisation (1939–1977)
    Olga Glondys

The Editors and Contributors

This book presents new research on Spain’s Franco dictatorship and reassesses various interpretations of the regime, question past interpretations but also reaffirming others. Some contributors argue that the Franco dictatorship should be seen as an example of European fascism, while other contributors stress the continuities between the Franco regime and the pre-Civil War period; however, most of them highlight the importance of the dictatorship’s fascist features. Some specific topics include the Falange and the Spanish counter-revolution, the journal Escorial, fascist Italy and Francoist Spain in the European context, and Francoism and opposition in the 1950s.

A varied and stimulating collection that enriches the debate on the nature, goals and achievements of a dictatorship that continues to represent an interpretative challenge to historians, political scientists and sociologists alike.|
From the Preface by Series Editor Nigel Townson

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