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Economic Relations between Egypt and the Gulf Oil States, 1967–2000

Petro Wealth and Patterns of Influence

Dr. Gil Feiler is a senior research associate at the Begin–Sadat Center for International Studies at Bar-Ilan University and owner of Infoprod Research (Middle East) Ltd., a leading provider of business information. He has published with Kluwer Law and the Economic Intelligence Unit.


This book provides a unique insight into a virtually unseen current that has shaped Middle East war and politics for over 30 years by explaining the intricate and ever shifting relationship between Egypt and the immensely wealthy Arab Gulf newcomers. The efforts of the Gulf states to exert political and cultural influence over Egypt through use of their oil revenues is described in detail, alongside concurrent Egyptian efforts to redistribute the oil wealth while maintaining complete policy independence and primacy. Drawing on previously unpublished reports, and on first-hand interviews with key persons throughout the region (including two Egyptian premiers), the book provides a first-time look at the full extent of the economic ties, at the inner workings of the relations, and at their long-term impact. New data and analysis shows the underlying logic and impact of this relationship, and the powerful interplay and the shifting balance of power.


Hardback ISBN: 978-1-903900-40-6
Hardback Price: £55.00 / $69.95
Release Date: November 2013
   
Page Extent / Format: 360 pp. / 246 x 171 mm
Illustrated: No
   

 



List of Tables
Acknowledgements
Executive Summary

CHAPTER 1 INVESTING IN RUSSIA
Political Background
Economic Review
Business Environment
Marketing Goods and Services
Legal Review
Investment Opportunities
General Information

CHAPTER 2 INVESTING IN UKRAINE
Political Background
Economic Review
Business Environment
Marketing Goods and Services
Legal Review
Investment Opportunities
General Information

CHAPTER 3 INVESTING IN LATVIA
Political Background
Economic Review
Business Environment
Marketing Goods and Services
Legal Review
Investment Opportunities

CHAPTER 4 INVESTING IN LITHUANIA
Political Background
Economic Review
Business Environment
Marketing Goods and Services
Legal Review
Investment Opportunities
General Information

CHAPTER 5 INVESTING IN KAZAKHSTAN
Political Background
Economic Review
Business Environment
Marketing Goods and Services
Legal Review
Investment Opportunities
General Information

Select Bibliography
Index


Aid, investment, and remittances did not put Egypt on the path to sustained growth in the 1970s; to the contrary, Egypt’s economy remained in desperate straits, and its dependence on aid only grew deeper. Feiler documents Egyptian disappointment with aid and its bitterness over bearing what it considered and undue burden in the conflict against Israel – factors which played no small part in Sadat’s decision to seek a peace treaty with Israel. These factors also led Egypt to turn to the West economically. Indeed, as the slow turn began in the late 1980s, Egyptian economic performance began to improve. The accelerating turn after the 1991 Kuwait war, rather than the Arab aid in the wake of Egypt’s role in that conflict, accounted for country’s strong economic showing in the 1990s.
Middle East Quarterly

Gil Feiler’s fascinating study examines a neglected aspect of the paradox of plenty: did oil revenues of the Arab Gulf oil countries (AOC) enable them to contribute to regional stability or, failing that, to at least gain friendship and influence with Egypt? The Egyptian/Gulf state linkages are of particular interest because they run counter to many of the aid-dependence patterns around the world…Among the many questions addressed by Feiler, the following are central. First, what was the underlying logic in the web of economic relations between the Gulf countries and Egypt? Second, did economic relations reinforce political relations? Third, was the Egyptian worker, returning home from the Gulf to Egypt, imbued with an intensified Arab orientation or was his Egyptian orientation strengthened? Fourth, how much did Arab aid to Egypt influence Anwar Sadat’s steps towards peace? Fifth, how should the range of economic relations between Egypt and the Arab oil countries in the 1970s be viewed: was Arab aid generous, as they claimed, or was it trifling, as claimed by Egypt, which stressed that the Arabs had become wealthy by means of Egyptian blood? Sixth, was the web of economic relations on the popular level influenced by economic relations at the official level? Did the governments involved have a deliberate policy in this context? Seventh, why did the oil-producing countries grant Egypt large amounts of aid? How was this aid doled out and was the timing critical in any way? And eighth, did Egypt renounce the independent formation of its foreign policy in exchange for aid?…From Feiler’s excellent analysis, we can add another dimension to the paradox of plenty: the failure of oil revenues to achieve regional peace and unity or to even gain a little influence and respect for the AOC. This carefully researched and well-written study should be on the shelf of anyone wanting a penetrating assessment of the limits to petro-power. Regional specialists will gain new insights into the opaque world of petro-politics.
The International History Review

Feiler examines in great detail economic relations between Egypt and the Arab oil exporting countries... A concluding chapter nicely assesses why the economic ties had less impact than suggested by the rhetoric on both sides... Recommended.
Social & Behavioral Sciences

Gil Feiler’s book on the Economic Relations between Egypt and the Gulf States treats a long neglected subject. His extremely well-researched study is a valuable contribution to the literature on the political economy and the international relations of the Middle East. He is able to shed additional light on the motivations of the Egyptian foreign policy in the 1967–2000 period, offering the reader a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the importance of Cairo’s economic ties with the Gulf states. The book also provides a wealth of factual economic data, rare information that has long been sought after by researchers.
Prof. Ephraim Inbar, Begin–Sadat (BESA) Center for Strategic Studies, Bar-Ilan University


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