Excellence in Scholarship and Learning
The house style detailed below is the preferred style of the Press. There is one major exception: where it has been agreed in advance with the Editorial Department the Press will accept a full US style, if prepared to conventions as outlined in The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition. Where any house style instruction conflicts with US style, this is alerted.
• Use the suffix -ize rather than -ise (but beware exceptions such as compromise, supervise)
• Use s’s except for Classical names such as Socrates’, Jesus’
• Double quotes (single inner); however, the Press has specific requirements for literary criticism books
• Date style: 12 August 2000 (US style, August 12, 2000)
• Punctuation style: a word or phrase quoted should have the closing quotation mark preceding the full stop. A full sentence should have the full stop preceding the final quote. Thus “Begin with double quote mark, but ‘use’ single within like this, and end a full sentence with the full stop before the final quote mark.” However, if the quotation is not complete “end like this”, with the comma or full stop outside the final quote mark (US style ends sentences and phrases like this.”)
• The twentieth century (spell out); a twentieth-century problem (hyphenate)
• Spell out numbers one to ten, or one to ninety-nine, except where they are attached to percentages, units, or sums of money; use figures for higher numbers. Thousand should be written 5,600 and 56,000 in the humanities, but 5600/56 000 in economics or scientific texts
• Use percent not %, except in tables or statistics
• Initials of names require full stops; initials should be spaced
• Foreign words should be italicized (or underlined to indicate italicization)
• The 1980s (no apostrophe), or the seventies (not 70s)
• Years: 1974–8, 1914–18
• Abbreviations should be written without full stops, thus BBC, USA; Mr, St; ed. for editor or edited by, and eds for editors. Similarly vol., no./ vols, nos (US style for plurals is eds., vols., nos. – with the period; abbreviations are without periods)
• Set parenthetical dashes in the text -- like this.
• BC and BCE should follow the date; AD and CE should precede the date
• Underline c. (for circa) to show italic, and set as follows: c.1939
• Displayed extracts can begin with a lower-case letter; do not begin with ellipsis
• Please do not over-italicize your text for emphasis
• Displayed extracts should be indented, double spaced, with an extra space above/below. There is no need to indent the first line of the extract, even if it begins with a paragraph indent in the original
• When author–date citations are required in displayed quotations they should follow the full stop of the extract; quotations that run-on in the text should follow the closing quotation mark but precede the full stop
• The editors of contributor volumes are requested to make sure that all chapter contributions are consistent in terms of spelling and punctuation
Literary criticism books
Over the last 20 years accepted punctuation style in academic institutions, and in academic writing generally, has tended to permit US style punctuation placement within single quote systems. However, authors who follow the system detailed below provide their readership with qualitative punctuation distinctions that impact positively on reading and understanding. In brief, a distinction is made, through comma and full stop placement in relation to quote marks, between full sentences and between incomplete sentences.
In the past, one complication was that ‘one should follow the original’. Thus if the incomplete sentence quoted happened to be the end of the sentence, then ‘it would be set like this.’ The punctuation practice adopted here does not follow this rule, and we would therefore ‘set it like this’.
In our experience, while we allow various styles across disciplines, the Press very much prefers to adopt the style detailed below for books on literary criticism and books with a particular British focus, especially in Theology.
• Thus ‘Begin with single quote mark, but “use” double within like this, and end a full sentence with the full stop before the final quote mark.’ However, if the quotation is not complete ‘end like this’, with the comma or full stop outside the final quote mark.
• For colons, use the following style. Xxxxxxxxxx: ‘End a full sentence with the full stop before the final quote mark.’
If you are in any doubt as to the correct punctuation style to use, please contact the Press.
• Bear in mind the essential qualities of a well-written text: clarity, objectivity, appropriate pace, balance between explanation and exemplification, and readability
• Structure and write your chapters with clear subheadings (maximum of 2 levels) in mind
• List key further readings at the end of chapters
• Chapter headings and subheadings should be written out upper and lower case, not in caps
Bibliographies and reference systems
• Before submitting the script, please DOUBLE-CHECK that all text references match bibliography entries, and that all bibliography entries are complete
• The three basic styles set out below express our preferences, but will not necessarily be imposed if you have used a consistent and unambiguous system. If in doubt, please contact the Press before submitting your script
» (1) Short title without a full bibliography supplied:
• A full reference in the notes section must be given the first time a work is mentioned in a chapter. Use the following forms:
Alistair Lynch, Writing a Book: Not as Easy as it Looks, 2nd edn (Brighton & Portland: Sussex Academic Press, 1998), p. 50.
George Halliwell, “Liaising with the Gods of the Greeks”, Review of Metaphysics 24, 3 (1987): 224-60, esp. p. 227.
Phyllis Pattern, “Flying the Flag: Diplomats in strange places”, in Handbook of Diplomacy (London: Excellent Press, 1944), pp. 42-50.
After the first full reference, further references consist of the author’s surname and the title (either full or shortened, but not op. cit.). Ibid. (italic) is acceptable where a reference is made to the same work as that given in the preceding note.
» (2) Short title with a full bibliography supplied:
• All references in the notes take a shortened form. Thus, Lynch, Writing a Book, p. 55; Pattern “Flying the Flag”, p. 22.
• In the bibliography itself, the details required for each citation are the same as those given above for first references
• Where there is more than one entry under a particular author’s name, the entries should be consistently ordered chronologically
• It is not necessary to give the issue number as well as the volume number if the journal is through-paginated by volume. If volume and issue are given, please use the form 12, 3 (1974)
» (3a) Author–date system, with a reference list at the end of the book (or end of chapter in contributed works), with or without notes:
• The reference in parentheses in the text gives the author’s surname and the date of publication
• If two or more works by the author have the same date, distinguish them by using a, b, c, etc. Text references should take the form (Harvey 1989: 60)
• Where the author’s name is mentioned in the body of the sentence, the reference in parentheses simply consists of the date (and if necessary the page)
• For a repeated reference, do not use ibid., but simply repeat the date
• Where two or more references are given together, follow consistently either alphabetical order or chronological order
• Where authors share a surname, include the initials before the surname so that the reader can pick up the correct entry in the reference list
• The date given in the text reference should be the date of the edition used; original publication can be given in square brackets, thus ( 1989)
• Use et al. (italic) consistently for books with three or more authors
» (3b) Author–date list of references:
• The list of books referred to should appear at the end of the chapter (in contributor books), or the end of the book under the heading “References”.
• The date of publication should always be given immediately after the author’s name so that the text reference can be traced quickly
• Arrange the entries under a particular author’s name chronologically; where two or more entries have the same date, order them alphabetically by title and designate them a, b, c, etc.
• The date given in the text reference should be the date of the edition used. It is sometimes helpful to mention the date of the original edition (or translation) among the bibliographical details in the reference list.
• Use the following forms:
Renolds, K. L. and Thomas, E. (eds) 1976: Constructing Identities. Brighton & Portland: Sussex Academic Press.
Levy, S. 1977a: The theatrical story of Genesis Rabbah. Journal of Religious Studies 45 (3), 225-72.
Cranmer, R. 1981: Determining thresholds in European society. In A. J. Holt (ed.), European Literary Migration, New York/London: New Press, 32-65.
Some general points about references and bibliographies:
Journal titles should be given in full, but abbreviations are allowed in scientific
works. If you abbreviate, make sure that the rationale is consistent and follows accepted usage. Remember, if you cite volume and issue number, use the form 12, 3 (1976) in the short-title system, and 12 (3) in the author–date system
Figures, Maps, Illustrations
• Line drawings and graphs should be called “figures” and assigned numbers
• Figures should be numbered by chapter. Thus the first figure in chapter 2 would be figure 2.1. Text references to figures should be lower-case
• We normally ask that all figures are supplied in an electronic format that will not require any redrawing; please contact your commissioning editor if you require figure submission advice
• Figures should be supplied separately; do not include them in the text file
• Make sure that illustrated material has the necessary explanatory keys
• Mark the script: “Place figure/table 3.2 here”; blank line above and below
• Provide figure captions as a separate list
• Do not include figures in the pagination of the script
• Important advice: keep artwork simple